61st anniversary of the space era beginning
The 4th of October
The 4th of October, 2018 – mankind celebrates the 61st anniversary of the beginning of the space era. On this day in 1957, the first artificial satellite of the Earth created in the USSR was launched into space. From this day, we are talking about the countdown of the days of world space exploration.
The Soviet spacecraft Sputnik-1 received the code designation “PS-1” (Simplest Satellite-1), its weight – 83.6 kg, diameter – 0.58 m. The launch was carried out from the 5th research facility of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR “Tura-Tam” (later received the name of the Baikonur Cosmodrome) on a Sputnik carrier rocket, created on the basis of an intercontinental ballistic missile R-7.
Scientists M. V. Keldysh, M. K. Tikhonravov, N. S. Lidorenko, G. Yu. Maksimov, V. I. Lapko, B worked on the creation of the first artificial satellite of the Earth, led by the founder of practical cosmonautics S. Korolyov. S. Chekunov, A. Bukhtiyarov and many others.
The main tasks facing the satellite were:
- Verification of calculations and basic technical solutions required to launch;
- Ionospheric studies of the passage of radio waves emitted by satellite transmitters;
- Experimental determination of the density of the upper layers of the atmosphere by deceleration of the satellite and the study of the operating conditions of the equipment in space.
During the flight, which lasted three months, Sputnik-1 made about 1,440 orbits around the Earth and descended from orbit on January 4, 1958.