Psychology concept and features

Through the senses, a person perceives the surrounding world in all its diversity. This is not only a sensory knowledge of the world but also an emotional attitude that is shaped towards what a person perceives. In psychology, there are many types of perceptions that need to be developed in children.

Perception occurs at various levels. First, at the level of the sense organs:

  • Eyes perceive shapes, sizes, colors, etc.
  • Ears hear sounds.
  • The nose perceives smells.
  • Language distinguishes tastes.
  • The skin perceives the structure, texture, hardness of the subject, etc.

Man can not only perceive the world around him at the level of the organism. Often a person shows his attitude to what he sees. It is formed at the level of emotions that he experiences when he perceives an object. For example, if a child is hurt, then what hurts him will cause him negative emotions.

Perception – what is it?

Perception is the result of the process of learning a specific subject. What is it? It is a holistic picture of what can a person perceive. There are specific features and characteristics of an object that almost always there is something. The perception depends on the intentions, desires, interests, mood of the person. In the world, there are many different objects, events, and people. However, among the variety of person identifies something specific, almost oblivious to everything else. It’s called selective perception when a person focuses on the fact that he is most important in a given second. On the one hand, this limits its capabilities. On the other hand, helps to focus on important issues without being distracted by other issues. Much depends on the consciousness of the person who drew attention to something specific or the whole world. However, this process cannot be constantly monitored, so the person often uses selective perception.

The main features of perception are:

  • Structural.
  • Constancy.
  • Illusion.
  • Objectivity.
  • Integrity.
  • Selectivity.
  • Apperception.
  • Meaningfulness.

In other words, perception is called knowledge, contemplation, evaluation, apperception, acceptance.

Perception in psychology

In a primitive understanding, the perception in psychology was characterized as that which a person receives from the outside world through his senses. However, experts continued to study this issue, focusing on the fact that a person perceives individual characteristics of objects, only with time becoming able to perceive them as a whole.

Primarily, a person identifies specific qualities in those phenomena, objects, or people that he perceives. Significant become those characteristics that are currently essential to man. Either he has recently been paying attention to them, or they are constantly associated with some events from the past, or he considers them essential.

If you turn to the perception of children, they often pay attention to those objects and people who are already familiar to them. They distinguish from the general mass what they already know, in order to reach for this. The mechanism of perception is carried out to a greater extent at the level of feelings. A person pays attention to what causes him strong feelings, arousal, sensations. Often, no more than 3 qualities of a particular object are perceived, which stand out against the general background. For a person, they are essential and characterize what he is looking at.

If we are talking about the perception of a familiar subject, then a person often again draws attention only to those qualities that he has already become accustomed to emphasizing.

If the perception occurs in an unfamiliar object, then the person studies it until he identifies 3-4 significant qualities that will stand out from the rest and characterize the object, person, phenomenon. He will look for familiar objects to which he can relate to a new phenomenon.

For easier perception, a person gets used to identifying the essential features of each object in order to attribute it to one group or another, regardless of the fact that all these objects may have different shapes, colors, smells, etc. This helps to spend less time , to again analyze the object on which a person is looking.

Motivation, the tasks that are set for it, emotions and attitudes also affect the person’s perception.

Types of perception

Perception is divided into several types:

  • Intentional perception – installation on the study of a particular subject.
  • Arbitrary – inclusion in the activities and implementation in the process of its implementation.
  • Unintentional – it happens suddenly without a prior statement of the problem.
  • Visual – perception through the organs of vision.
  • Auditory – the perception of sounds and orientation in the outside world through the organs of hearing.
  • Tactile – the perception of the world through tactile organs.
  • Olfactory – the perception of odors through the respiratory system.
  • Taste – knowledge of the world through receptors located in the language.

Observation is involved in the subject of consideration of perception, which is formed as a result of observation of a particular object or phenomenon. The task is set, the activity is carried out purposefully, and the whole process is stretched in time. It helps to study the observed object after a time in its changes, transformations, development, etc.

  • Visual perception of space through the organs of vision, which pay attention to the shape and size of the object.
  • The perception of time. Perception of information. The level of susceptibility is affected by:
  • The significance of the situation. The evoked emotions in perception affect the assessment that a person gives to circumstances.
  • Depth understanding of the situation. The more a person understands what is happening, the less he dramatizes and worries. Characteristics of the object, person, phenomenon.
  • Stereotypes are statements that are often inspired by other people, but allow a person to develop a definite relation to what is happening in advance. Unpredictability and distorted information.

Perception – human by human

A person lives among other people with whom he contacts and even creates relationships. Different people make up different conversations, different relationships, and various emotions arise. A person can be good, but in the eyes of others he can be good and evil, sociable and shy, beautiful and ugly, etc. The person is one, and his perception by another individual is completely different. All people will speak differently about the same person if they do not know the opinions of others.

The perception of man by man is based on the following factors:

  • Appearance. Initially, external data is evaluated, as they say, “they are met according to their clothes.”
  • Posture.
  • Gait.
  • Gesturing
  • A culture of speech.
  • Behavioral patterns.
  • Patterns of behavior.
  • Habits
  • Professional characteristic.
  • Moral and communication skills.
  • Social status.
  • Significant for a particular person quality.

Sometimes people evaluate each other by external signs, which should speak about the individual’s specific qualities of character. For example, frowning eyebrows should indicate the seriousness or rage of a person.

However, it happens that the appearance is deceiving. A person may be quite different in character, rather than looks about it. Also, people attribute to each other the qualities that are observed among their acquaintances, who the new person looks like. The interviewee may be similar in appearance to your former love, because of what you attribute to him the qualities that were characteristic of your former partner.

Also, people assess each other at the level of associating social status with their character traits. A person in torn clothes will not seem successful and businesslike, although this can also be a deceptive opinion. The perception in this matter is affected by the standards, measurements and public stereotypes about what should be these or those people.

Also, the quality of perception of a new person is affected by the information that they receive before they become acquainted with it. So, for example, if you heard something bad about a person you do not know, then most likely you will show a negative attitude towards him at the time of your first acquaintance with him. Also, people tend to negatively relate to individuals who belong to another social group. To those who are lower in status, are disregarded. To those who are higher in status, feel envy.

You should not divide a person into good and bad sides. A person cannot be good or bad, he is just what he is. And it would be more correct to call the good and bad sides both “convenient” and “inconvenient” characteristics that prevent others, and not him. Something is “convenient” for people in a person, and they encourage it, and that which is “inconvenient” is criticized.

In fact, a split personality occurs only because a person approves of something in himself, but something does not. Although there is nothing good and bad in it. There is simply it with certain qualities, and characteristics. And they are neither good nor bad. They are present in a person for some reasons that are known only to him. Good qualities are “convenient” to other people; bad – “uncomfortable.” Doesn’t a person change his attitude towards what he is “uncomfortable”? If someone is “uncomfortable” with something in another person, this does not mean that this is a bad quality. Often, the negative side plays a protective role, protecting the person from various kinds of stress. It would be more appropriate to name the positive and negative sides as “helping” and “disturbing”. However, this issue must be addressed by the person. He must decide for himself what “helps” him to live the way he wants and what does not. And to make a decision to change in oneself “interfering” qualities into those that will “help” him.

The development of perception in children

The perception of the world is manifested from birth. Just a baby can not yet control their own processes of perception. Or, as they get older, active, and understand the world around them, children understand how they can be controlled. Although even this is not always controlled, what can be noted in adults, whose perceptual development has reached a peak. The development of perception occurs by itself, depending on the activity and living conditions of the child.

Parents can influence this process with those educational norms and joint activities where the world around is discussed. If the parents are engaged with the child, then his perception is formed faster than in children whose development was not involved. At the early school age, children do not recognize familiar people who are dressed in unusual outfits. They also perceive one quality of the subject, on the basis of which they give it a characteristic.

At the average school age, the child begins to correlate the objects by size. In senior school age, the ratio of objects is at the level of width, height, space and length. The main feature of a child’s perception is his ability to reproduce what he sees with accuracy in size, color, etc. Relation to other people is determined by assessments.

Children give particularly harsh marks to those who are in constant contact with them. The perception of other children is at the level of their popularity in the group. The more popular a child in a group, the more appreciated it is by other children.


Each person has a perception that is based on the senses with which he operates. If a certain sense organ distorts the surrounding reality, then an erroneous opinion is formed in a person until other people tell him what he really should perceive. Perception leads to the following result – an understanding of the surrounding world in all its diversity.

However, one should take into account the traps of one’s own psyche, which can distort information perceived from outside: First, public opinion. The majority can also be mistaken, especially if it is guided by stereotypes, and not by logical and sensible reasoning. Often a person succumbs to public opinion, paying attention to the world around us with a certain predisposition (negative or positive). The second is your own desires. Often a person does not notice much, while covered by their own desires.

It is necessary to strive to achieve the goal, but when the freedoms and rights of other people are not violated or the actions do not contradict the laws of nature. Otherwise, the forecast may be unfavorable: the absence of the achieved goal. The third is stereotypes and habits. The brain allows a person not to be overwhelmed, to look at the world as usual. However, to fully understand the situation, it is often necessary to go beyond the usual perception and start looking at circumstances differently.

The topic of perception is extensive, which allows a person in many variations to perceive the world, which is the same for everyone, but different in the eyes of those who look at it.